Northern Variant of nasal Aerodynamics (NVA)

When the main air flow comes through the nasal sinuses, even at 20 degrees below zero, the air is warming to + 25

     
 

Southern Variant of nasal Aerodynamics (SVA)

When the main air flow comes through the reserve nasal breathing way, the inferior nasal passage is so cool, with temperatures below zero, that the cold air enters in the nasopharynx, the season ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE (ARD) programming and often leads to the SNORING during of the Night Sleeping

              

NASAL AERODYNAMICS and RHINOSINUSITISES

PRIMARY VALVE OF THE NOSE - IT'S HIS CAVERNOUS BODIES

Relationship between two parallel respiratory structures in the nose

The main cause of the night snoring is violations of the nasal aerodynamics

The functionality of the small ostiums of the nasal sinuses

Critical comparison of opposite opinions about the function of the nasal sinuses using Occam's Razor

The real significance of the limen nasi

NASAL AERODYNAMICS

VARIANTS OF NASAL AERODYNAMICS

NORMOGRAM OF NASAL AERODYNAMICS

PHYSIOLOGICAL BRIDGE REPRESENTED BY THE NASAL VALUE

SURGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF NASAL AERODYNAMICS

SEPTOPLASRY UNDER CONTROL OF NASAL AERODYNAMICS

CONTRAINDICATION TO SEPTOPLASTY

PROTECTION OF THE INFERIOR NASAL PASSAGE FROM INSPIRATION

THE INSIDIOUSNESS OF THE UNILATERAL "SOUTHERN" NASAL AERODYNAMICS.

SNORING WHEN NASAL RESPIRATION IS SAVED.

Individual defence against infection by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - SARS

     
 
 

ABSTRACT

 

This textbook «NASAL AERODYNAMICS and RHINOSINUSITISES» is recommended by Educational-methodical Association on Medical and Pharmaceutical derivation of universities in Russia as the Manual textbook for experts in ENT illnesses professional skillss improvement as a good application and in polyclinical conditions (outpatience practice).

In the given textbook, with the help of the author's technique was the first to research airflows in nasal passages, that has allowed to conduct the deep pathophysiological analysis of features nasal aerodynamics, which plays a leading role in the development of seasonal ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE (ARD), with stagnant sinusitises, by the way RHINOSINUSITISES (RS).

The proposed rapid method of determining violations of a nasal aerodynamics considerably accelerates their diagnostics, facilitates the selection of pathogenetic therapy and helps develop pathogenesis-based preventive care (prophylaxis).

Designed as therapeutic ways of seasonal protection from violations of nasal aerodynamics and surgical ways of renovation of protective properties of aerodynamics of a nose, the application which one allows more successfully to treat and to notify seasonal ARD with RS.

The new techniques are protected by the Russian patents.

 
 

The Main Findings:

 

1. Relevance of nasal aerodinamics violations as a cause of seasonal ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE (ARD) with RHINOSINUSITISES (RS) especially evident due to the rise in the World of a global epidemic of non-communicable respiratory diseases because even in the years expressed influenza epidemics reach at least 60%;

2. Basic protection from of the seasonal ARD with RS is the mucociliary protective mechanism of nasal mucous membrane, which consists of the mucociliary transport on helium film and the mucociliary clearance beneath the helium film, which successfully complement each other ;

3. The protective properties of nasal aerodynamics are playing a leading role among the nasal protective mechanisms that aim to preserve the activity of the mucociliary protective mechanism;

4. The nasal aerodynamics consists of two parallel respiratory structures, as form of the middle and superior nasal passages together with nasal sinuses, which perform the basic respiratory and protective function of the nose, and inferior nasal passage together with common nasal passage, which perform the reserve respiratory functions, that is activated when the bandwidth of the basic respiratory nasal airways is not enought for nasal respiration;

5. When the main air stream passes through the basic respiratory nasal airways (nasal sinuses), the air is warming to plus 25oC even at minus 20oC outside, that successfully protects against seasonal ARD with the RS and therefore, such type of the nasal aerodynamics is regarded as the Northern Variant of the nasal Aerodynamics (NVA), which corresponds normogramme of nasal aerodynamic;

6. A distinctive feature of the NVA is a distance between the anterior end of the inferior turbinate and the nasal septum within 2 mm and therefore an air column in the gleam of such width in fact blocking the inferior nasal passage and directs the main air flow in the middle and superior nasal passages with nasal sinuses, actually performing the role of “physiological jumper”;

7. When the main air stream passes through the reserve respiratory nasal airways, during cold temperature season the inferior nasal passage and nasopharynx on so much cool, that programming seasonal ADR, so such variant of the nasal aerodynamics is more suitable to a warm climate of Southern latitudes, due to the what he regarded as the Southern Version of nasal Aerodynamics (SVA);

8. The distinctive feature of SVA is not only the width of a lumen more than 2 mm between the anterior end of the inferior turbinate and the nasal septum, which leading to seasonal ARD, but also stagnant inflammatory process in the middle and superior nasal passages with the nasal sinuses, forming stagnant RS which is manifested in the form of seasonal ARD with the RS;

9. Overlapping of the reserve respiratory nasal airways programmed with the help of the physiological oedema his cavernous bodies, especially during sleep that is directing the main air stream of the nose passes through the nasal sinuses, in order to acieve maximum protective properties of a nose during sleep from ARD, but when a person is awake the bandwidth of the main nasal respiratory way becomes not enough, physiological oedema is receding and opening the reserve respiratory nasal airways that no longer threatens the ARD development due to sufficient activation the protective properties of the waking organism;

10. Additional overlap of the inferior nasal passage with the help of the limen nasi, anterior synechiae, spikes and curvatures of the nasal septum, promote the diversion of the main nasal air flow in the middle and superior nasal passages with nasal sinuses which activates the protective properties of the nasal aerodynamics;

11. Exceptionally only small ostiums of the nasal cellular system and nasal sinuses, working like a spray mechanism of the H.L.Bergson (1859–1941), provide their extremely active ventilation;

12. The protective properties of the nasal aerodynamics is also evident during expiration when warm and moist air stream helps to restore the nasal mucous membrane injured during inspiration, especially for the SVA ;

13. The unilateral SVA is the most aggressive, because it leads to a double overload of the inferior nasal passage, which working for both halves of the nose, that is typical for a deviated septum, so during septoplasty the NVA reconstruction from the SVA is needed;

14. Pathogenetic therapy of seasonal ARD with the RS in SVA, should be directed as at the treatment of acute post-traumatic inflammation of the reserve nasal respiratory airways, as well at the treatment of stagnant chronic inflammation in the middle and superior nasal passages with nasal sinuses;

15. Methods of therapeutic protection from violations of the SVA as well as surgical reconstruction of the NVA from of the SVA should be recognized as pathogenetic grounded prophylaxis of the seasonal ARD with the RS;

16. Since the main cause of the night snoring is blocking of the reserve respiratory nasal airway at SVA because of chronic congestive MS, physiological edema cavernous bodies and protective rhinedema of the inferior nasal passage, which leads to the mouth breathing, pathogenetic treatments snoring during sleep should be recognized as forced airing sinuses or surgical reconstruction the NVA from the SVA.

 
 
 
 

Critical comparison of opposite opinions about the function of the nasal sinuses using Occam's Razor


Ulyanov Y.P., Sadyev H.D., Sadyev T.H.

 
 

Department of Otorhinolaryngology for postgraduate professional education of the First Moscow State Medical University of Sechenov.  

 
 

Theses of the report - 2012 year

After identifying the relationship between the two parallel respiratory nasal structures (2011), among which the main respiratory structures is formed from the middle and superior nasal passages together with nasal sinuses and the reserve respiratory structure is formed by the common and inferioir nasal passages.
And after revealing the real functionality of the small ostiums of the nasal sinuses (2011) that can meet their intensive airing, it is quite obvious that the study of nasal breathing awake patients actually tested by activating of the reserve respiratory tract, where the main airflow past the paranasal sinuses, and that is misleading about the inability of the sinuses provide basic protective function of the nose to warm and moistening inhaled air.
Therefore , to identify the most scientific credibility of one of the two opposite opinions , it is appropriate to hold them more rigorous critical comparison using Occam's Razor , successfully applied in philosophy for centuries, as the most reliable criterion of truth , which was developed and adopted in philosophical logic since Aristotle , as the most rational judgment to resolve these conflicting positions in science, and was named Razor ( blade) Ockham ( English Franciscan monk , philosopher nominalist William of Ockham (Ockham, Ockam, Occam; OK. 1285-1349 ) , which reads: "We should not attract new entities without the extreme need for it ." This principle is also called the principle of parsimony or law of economy solutions .
In philosophy , the term " razor " refers to a tool that helps to discard ( " shave " , a portmanteau . 'Shave away', read on) unlikely , implausible explanations of any phenomenon . Shave as a noun has other value besides " hoax ," " deception ", hence shave verb means " to mystify ", " cheat " ; growth away (shave away) is the reverse process , ie the truth . However , in the vernacular vocabulary shave verb means " to shave ." And as a tool for shaving razor blade (razor), then on the "tool" to establish the truth was transferred the same name .
Sometimes this principle is expressed in the words: "What can be explained by the smaller, should not be expressed through greater" (Latin Frustra fit per plura quod potest fieri per pauciora). It is usually driven by historians phrase "essence should not be multiplied without necessity" (Latin Entia non sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate).
Albert Einstein reformulated the principle of "Occam's Razor" as follows: "Everything should be simplified as far as possible, but no more."
In modern science, under the "Occam's Razor" usually refers to a more general principle, stating that if there is more logically consistent definition or explanation of a phenomenon, it should be considered the best is the simplest of them.
Tendency to seek simple solutions possible, an outstanding Soviet mathematician Kolmogorov considers universal principle governing the work of thinking and creativity.
Practical application of the principle of " Occam's Razor " is usually limited to the following : "Do not introduce new laws to explain a new phenomenon , if this phenomenon can be explained by the old law." Today this principle - razor ( blade) About ? Kkama research is a powerful tool of critical thought , to identify the authenticity and used in science under the scheme: " If a phenomenon can be explained in two ways , for example, the first - through the involvement of entities ( terms , factors transformations , etc.) a, B and C, and the second - by A , B, C and D, while both methods give the same result, then the excess substance D and the first method is the true (which may be dispensed without attracting unnecessary entity ) . "
In relation to two contradictory judgments about the role of the paranasal sinuses in the mechanism of the protective function of the nasal aerodynamics principle of "Occam's Razor" is as follows.
When leading the protective role of the paranasal sinuses with the upper nasal passages, nasal aerodynamics protective mechanism is formed from A - inhaling through the nose, that B - warms and humidifies the air flow that passes through C - upper nasal passages with the paranasal sinuses (main airway nose).
Since both versions of the protective function of the nasal aerodynamics give the same protective effect, the essence of D should recognize the excess, and the best is the first judgment of the leading role of the sinuses, evaporating surface which at times more volatile the upper surface of the nasal passages and therefore can do without attracting unnecessary entities - D.
Thus, the opinion of the protective role of the paranasal sinuses, providing a protective function of the nose, through the active ventilation of the sinuses, leading to a warming of the inhaled air and hydration should be considered quite reasonable, understandable and have a real practical use for the prevention of seasonal respiratory diseases, because their protective role and are extreme, when the airways are most vulnerable - in a calm state of man, especially during sleep.